Over the past decade, health policies across Europe have seen a shift from a pathogenic and deficit view of health towards a more salutogenic and community-centred approach to promote people’s wellbeing and reduce health inequalities. Accordingly, asset-based health promotion models have started attracting the interest of researchers and health professionals and programmes based on encouraging the development of people’s strengths and abilities have risen. However, the evidence is still limited on how a salutogenic approach can improve the health and wellbeing of people and communities and the mechanisms for implementation.Using realist evaluation methodology, this research aims to explore under which circumstances asset-based health promotion programmes can support communities’ wellbeing and help reducing inequalities. Through a cross-case analysis between two programmes in Spain and in England, this study should contribute to theoretical explanations of how asset-based approaches can promote people’s health. This can increase the evidence-base to inform further policies on community health, to develop and evaluate the implementation of asset-based strategies in community health programmes and to develop novel evaluation framework to assess complex interventions such as these.